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Bryn Mawr Classical Review: 2013.01.16

Marian Hillar, De la logos la trinitate: evolutia credintelor religioase de la Pitagora la Tertulian. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012. Pp. escorte timi xi, 320. ISBN 9781107013308. 60,00 lire sterline. escorte ieftine craiova

Revizuit de Joe McCoy, Universitatea din Nevada, Reno ([email protected])

Versiune pe site-ul de acasa BMCR

previzualizare

Exista trei niveluri distincte de ingrijorare in Marian Hillar de la Logos la Trinitate: Evolutia credintelor religioase de la Pitagora la Tertulian. Prima este ca doctrina Trinitatii – ca Divinitatea cuprinde trei persoane intr-o singura natura – este un crez strain crestinismului autentic al generatiei apostolice. publi 24 escorte brasov In al doilea rand, Hillar propune excizia acestei doctrine din teologia crestina ca o conditie necesara pentru reunificarea crestinismului, precum si pentru o apropiere mai larga intre marile religii monoteiste. In al treilea rand, Hillar prezinta o relatare istorica a modului in care semintele acestei doctrine au fost implantate si crescute in Biserica timpurie. Teza lui Hillar este ca intelepciunea evreiasca si traditiile mesianice au fost deturnate de ganditorii crestini timpurii si s-au combinat cu notiuni metafizice, care erau actuale in Imperiul Roman timpuriu. escorte 24 brasov

Este important sa distingem preocuparile teologice si ecumenice care motiveaza De la Logos la Treime de abordarea metodologica a lui Hillar la materialul istoric. O mare parte din ceea ce intereseaza este analiza atat a traditiei filozofice grecesti, cat si a gandirii evreiesti care preced logosul fiind identificat drept asteptatul Mesia evreiasca si cu Fiul lui Dumnezeu in doctrina trinitara. In consecinta, capitolul 1 ofera o imagine de ansamblu asupra speculatiilor filozofice care folosesc logo-urile de la Pitagora prin Platon si Aristotel pana la stoici. escorte bulgaria Capitolul 2 acopera notiunea de „cuvantul lui Dumnezeu” ( dvar Elohim ), care este strans asociata cu intelepciunea lui Dumnezeu ( hokhmah). Crucial in acest capitol este rolul lui Philo din Alexandria care incearca o elenizare a teologiei evreilor si astfel ipostatizeaza „cuvantul lui Dumnezeu”. Capitolul 3 este intitulat „Dezvoltarea traditiilor mesianice evreiesti” si discuta diferitele fire ale viziunii evreiesti a lui Mesia, care, argumenteaza Hillar, implica o figura umana si, de obicei, un lider politic pe modelul regelui David, dar nu unul divin persoana. escorte scato In capitolul 4, „Dezvoltarea doctrinei crestine eleniste”, el sustine ca principalele piese ale doctrinei trinitare erau in vigoare, doctrina completa asteptand doar explicarea ganditorilor ulterioare. Prima etapa a acestei lucrari ramase urma sa fie realizata de Justin Martyr, cuprinsa in capitolele 5 si 6, iar apoi viziunea trinitara completa adusa de Tertulian, acoperita in capitolele 7 si 8. Capitolul 9 este oarecum incongruos, deoarece il trateaza pe Thomas Aquinas pe Trinitate. escorte voluptoase Aquina a trait aproape un mileniu dupa Tertulian, iar evolutiile provizorii, cum ar fi dezbaterile hristologice timpurii, controversele ariene si Sfaturile din Niceea si Constantinopol, lucrarile relevante ale lui Augustin si Boethius, pentru a numi cateva, sunt omise.



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Principala dificultate in abordarea metodologica a lui Hillar asupra surselor istorice este presupunerea sa implicita ca nu au existat pauze conceptuale sau intreruperi intre crestinismul apostolic timpuriu si iudaismul istoric si mesianic in lumea romana. Cu alte cuvinte, avand in vedere ca nu exista un statut ontologic distinct pentru Cuvantul lui Dumnezeu in iudaism, crestinismul timpur nu a putut contine o astfel de notiune. escorte sex neprotejat Si, totusi, crestinismul timpuriu nu era de-a dreptul sa se distinga, uneori brusc, de iudaismul din zilele sale, de exemplu, in respingerea restaurarii unei monarhii Davidice ca misiune mesianica. Intr-adevar, a fost poate si mai dornic sa se distinga de mediul intelectual grecesc, despre care Pavel vorbeste frecvent despre dispret (de ex. Efeseni 4: 17-19) si care a gasit notiunea de intrupat, rastignit si zeu inviat trupesc pentru a fi un oximoron grotesc. escorte cunilingus Asta nu inseamna ca precursorii pe care Hillar ii identifica nu i-ar fi putut combina astfel incat sa genereze doctrina Trinitatii. Dar este de spus ca, avand in vedere dovezile furnizate, nu putem distinge propria naratiune a evenimentelor lui Hillar din punctul de vedere ca scriitorii crestini timpurii au folosit in mod intentionat notiuni grecesti pentru a explica realitatea pe care au inteles ca au fost comunicate in experienta lor cu Hristos si cu a sa invataturi.

Teza lui Hillar din „ Logos to Trinity” este astfel nedeterminata prin metoda sa si caracterul sau tendentios poate fi vazut in declaratiile pe care le face in favoarea sa din capitolul 4, pe care le citez pe lung:

Biserica Romano-Catolica a sustinut ca doctrina lui Dumnezeu triunfata a fost cuprinsa sau cel putin implicata in textele scripturistice ale Vechiului si ale Noului Testament si ca asa a fost mesajul lor. escorte noi Doctrina a fost instituita ca dominanta in secolul al patrulea prin combinarea ei cu un mijloc de constrangere sub forma legii de stat si impiedicarea oricarui studiu savant independent al textelor sacre. A fost necesara Reforma si Reforma Radicala pentru a initia un proces dureros si deseori reprimat de sange reevaluare a textelor sacre si revenirea la sensul lor initial.

The acceptance of the trinitarian doctrine is based on human psychological conditioning. filme porno cu escorte Even today, most Christians when facing the obvious scholarly arguments against the Trinity in the scriptures, bluntly refuse to consider them because they feel a threat to their pious belief in Jesus and the “Holy Spirit.” This concept reflects the presumed highest level of piety by ascribing to the Christ-Messiah all possible perfections we can humanly imagine, thus equating him ontologically with the divinity. (132)

These claims are quite dubious historically. escorte in oradea First, it is prima facie untenable (and nowhere supported in Hillar’s present study) that the early Church implemented the doctrine of the Trinity in the fourth century as a political tool to establish its hegemony. To believe this, one must suppose that, just at the moment of its legalization under Constantine, the Christian Church, which had been persecuted for three centuries as atheistic for denying the gods of Rome, decided to flirt with plurality in the Godhead, despite the considerable risk of offending the first avowedly monotheistic emperor. Second, while state power may have consolidated the Trinitarian position after the Arian controversy had run its course, it is a highly unlikely that it was cause of it. escorte timisoata The Christian Church’s alliance with the Roman state developed alongside the definition of the Trinity as dogma. Christianity was merely legalized in A.D. escorte botosani site:nimfomane.com 313 by the Edict of Milan, and did not become the official state religion until A.



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D. 380 under Theodosius, only one year before the Council of Constantinople when the Arian controversy was finally put to rest. escorte drobeta Third, the Reformation and the “bloodily repressed process” of rereading the sacred texts have no real bearing on the origin of Trinitarian doctrine, which was scarcely questioned in that period.

The ad hominem argumentation Hillar uses in the above quoted passage is particularly unfortunate. Since the “scholarly arguments” against Trinitarian doctrine are “obvious,” he holds that “psychological conditioning” is the only explanation for its continued acceptance. anunturi escorte iasi As a matter of logic, this is no refutation. Regrettably it is necessary to repeat the nature of the fallacy here: a proposition might be held for any number of reasons, or even for no reason at all, and still be perfectly correct. Yet even assuming the “psychological conditioning” view, Hillar would still need to show that asserting God’s triune personhood was an especially useful instrument in achieving political ends where its denial was not—that it played upon preexisting interests or prejudices or that it flattered the intellectual vanity of Christians at that time. escorte. sibiu Again this is very implausible historically: the early Christian church, like Judaism before it, was steadfastly monotheistic, a principle for which it was brutally persecuted over the first centuries of its existence. Indeed, during much of the fourth century, Arianism was the more popular view throughout the Empire and newly converted German tribes. Constantine himself seemed, if anything, to incline toward the Arian party throughout much of the controversy, even receiving baptism from a former Arian bishop on his deathbed. escorte uro bacau Hence, Hillar’s view implies that Trinitarian “psychological conditioning” was so effective as to create out of whole cloth an ingrained, persistent belief that nevertheless runs contrary to reason, piety, fellow-feeling, and self-interest.

Given Hillar’s statements as to the actual grounds for the acceptance of Trinitarian doctrine, his historical approach to the subject becomes less intelligible. If Trinitarianism was in fact an opiate for the masses, what Heraclitus or Plato, or Philo or Justin Martyr for that matter could offer would have been of very little independent interest to a fourth century Christians and their leaders. escorte singure It is unclear, then, why the examination of, say, the Presocratics on the logos should be necessary in order to expose this cynical fraud perpetrated in the fourth century. Instead, we would expect a historical critique of Trinitarian doctrine to take the form of an account of the motivations and tactics of those peculiar bishops in the early church as to how this innovation was calculated to achieve political dominance. Yet we find relatively little discussion of what the doctrine of the Trinity actually consists of, the circumstances and debates that occasioned its development, and how those who actually formulated and defended the teachings of Nicaea and Constantinople characterize it. escorte public 24

This neglect of Church history leads to a number of mistakes, or even straw-man accounts of the doctrine. For example, the statement on pg. 109 that, as one substance and three persons, “the Trinity is ‘quadernity’. escorte sec 1 ” This facile distortion—something like saying if three quarters are lying on the table and all are currency, then there are four objects on the table—is addressed in most rudimentary presentations of Trinitarian doctrine. On pg.



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257 he states that “Tertullian was first to use the term ‘Trinity'” and cites the author’s treatise Contra Praxeam written c. anunturi escorte bacau A.D. 218. escorte transexuale In fact the first use of “Trinity” in the context of Christian theology is by Theophilus of Antioch in To Autolycus (II, 15) dating to around A.D. 181, where the author invokes the term in his exposition of Genesis, that is, as a familiar term. Although Contra Praxeam is the first treatise on the Trinity as such, the word “Trinity” appears in an earlier work of Tertullian’s, On Modesty (XXI, 16) probably written around A.D. 200, where it is mentioned in passing as well. By commonly accepted standards of evidence, this places the word “Trinity” as an established Christian concept relating to the Godhead in the early second century, to say nothing of the substance of the doctrine.

By way of conclusion, a word should be added regarding Hillar’s broader project of recovering a more authentic Christian theology through the excision of Trinitarianism. Hillar gives much credit to Michael Servetus in articulating the position he takes in From Logos to Trinity. A polymath living in the sixteenth century at the beginning of the Protestant Reformation, Servetus believed that the Trinity was the corrupt germ leading to the disturbances and upheavals that Latin Christendom was just beginning to experience and whose removal would lead not only to greater Christian unity, but would also set the stage for a possible rapprochement with Judaism and Islam. Given Hillar’s broader project of theological harmony among the monotheisms of the world, it seems fitting to correct another common misunderstanding, namely, the view that there is nothing in the other monotheisms that answers to the role played by the Trinity. In Judaism, for example, the Torah, the wisdom of God, has been held to be eternal, or at least that its existence vastly predates Moses’ reception of it on Mt. Sinai. In Islam, the Quran has been generally regarded as the eternal and uncreated word of God, with the minority position being that it is a temporal record of the revelations of the Prophet. Perhaps even more dramatically, the Sikh religion regards its holy script, the Guru Granth Sahib, as a person with the authority possessed as the successor of the living Gurus. All these facts suggest that parallels between the theologies of the great monotheisms and Christian Trinitarianism on the ontological status of God’s Wisdom have yet to be acknowledged and explored.

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Marian Hillar, De la logos la trinitate: evolutia credintelor religioase de la Pitagora la Tertulian. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012. Pp. escorte timi xi, 320. ISBN 9781107013308. 60,00 lire sterline. escorte ieftine craiova Revizuit de Joe McCoy, Universitatea din Nevada, Reno ([email protected]) Versiune pe site-ul de acasa BMCR previzualizare Exista trei niveluri distincte de ingrijorare in Marian Hillar de la Logos la Trinitate: Evolutia credintelor religioase de la Pitagora la Tertulian. Prima este ca doctrina Trinitatii - ca Divinitatea cuprinde trei persoane intr-o singura natura - este un crez strain crestinismului autentic al generatiei apostolice. publi 24 escorte brasov In al doilea rand, Hillar propune excizia acestei doctrine din teologia crestina ca o conditie necesara pentru reunificarea crestinismului, precum si pentru o apropiere mai larga intre marile religii monoteiste. In al treilea rand, Hillar prezinta o relatare istorica a modului in care semintele acestei doctrine au fost implantate si crescute in Biserica timpurie. Teza lui Hillar este ca intelepciunea evreiasca si traditiile mesianice au fost deturnate de ganditorii crestini timpurii si s-au combinat cu notiuni metafizice, care erau actuale in Imperiul Roman timpuriu. escorte 24 brasov Este important sa distingem preocuparile teologice si ecumenice care motiveaza De la Logos la Treime de abordarea metodologica a lui Hillar la materialul istoric. O mare parte din ceea ce intereseaza este analiza atat a traditiei filozofice grecesti, cat si a gandirii evreiesti care preced logosul fiind identificat drept asteptatul Mesia evreiasca si cu Fiul lui Dumnezeu in doctrina trinitara. In consecinta, capitolul 1 ofera o imagine de ansamblu asupra speculatiilor filozofice care folosesc logo-urile de la Pitagora prin Platon si Aristotel pana la stoici. escorte bulgaria Capitolul 2 acopera notiunea de „cuvantul lui Dumnezeu” ( dvar Elohim ), care este strans asociata cu intelepciunea lui Dumnezeu ( hokhmah). Crucial in acest capitol este rolul lui Philo din Alexandria care incearca o elenizare a teologiei evreilor si astfel ipostatizeaza „cuvantul lui Dumnezeu”. Capitolul 3 este intitulat „Dezvoltarea traditiilor mesianice evreiesti” si discuta diferitele fire ale viziunii evreiesti a lui Mesia, care, argumenteaza Hillar, implica o figura umana si, de obicei, un lider politic pe modelul regelui David, dar nu unul divin persoana. escorte scato In capitolul 4, „Dezvoltarea doctrinei crestine eleniste”, el sustine ca principalele piese ale doctrinei trinitare erau in vigoare, doctrina completa asteptand doar explicarea ganditorilor ulterioare. Prima etapa a acestei lucrari ramase urma sa fie realizata de Justin Martyr, cuprinsa in capitolele 5 si 6, iar apoi viziunea trinitara completa adusa de Tertulian, acoperita in capitolele 7 si 8. Capitolul 9 este oarecum incongruos, deoarece il trateaza pe Thomas Aquinas pe Trinitate. escorte voluptoase Aquina a trait aproape un mileniu dupa Tertulian, iar evolutiile provizorii, cum ar fi dezbaterile hristologice timpurii, controversele ariene si Sfaturile din Niceea si Constantinopol, lucrarile relevante ale lui Augustin si Boethius, pentru a numi cateva, sunt omise. escorte chisinauescorte costinestiescorte bucuresti sector 6escorte anuntulescorte piata uniriianuntul escorteescorte sex constantaescorte budapestaescorte sex matureescorte gay iasiescorte sector 6 bucurestiescorte din brailaescorte mures forumpublica 24 escorteescorte cluj napocaescorte plinuteescorte siliconateescorte shemaleescorte piatraescorte hd Principala dificultate in abordarea metodologica a lui Hillar asupra surselor istorice este presupunerea sa implicita ca nu au existat pauze conceptuale sau intreruperi intre crestinismul apostolic timpuriu si iudaismul istoric si mesianic in lumea romana. Cu alte cuvinte, avand in vedere ca nu exista un statut ontologic distinct pentru Cuvantul lui Dumnezeu in iudaism, crestinismul timpur nu a putut contine o astfel de notiune. escorte sex neprotejat Si, totusi, crestinismul timpuriu nu era de-a dreptul sa se distinga, uneori brusc, de iudaismul din zilele sale, de exemplu, in respingerea restaurarii unei monarhii Davidice ca misiune mesianica. Intr-adevar, a fost poate si mai dornic sa se distinga de mediul intelectual grecesc, despre care Pavel vorbeste frecvent despre dispret (de ex. Efeseni 4: 17-19) si care a gasit notiunea de intrupat, rastignit si zeu inviat trupesc pentru a fi un oximoron grotesc. escorte cunilingus Asta nu inseamna ca precursorii pe care Hillar ii identifica nu i-ar fi putut combina astfel incat sa genereze doctrina Trinitatii. Dar este de spus ca, avand in vedere dovezile furnizate, nu putem distinge propria naratiune a evenimentelor lui Hillar din punctul de vedere ca scriitorii crestini timpurii au folosit in mod intentionat notiuni grecesti pentru a explica realitatea pe care au inteles ca au fost comunicate in experienta lor cu Hristos si cu a sa invataturi. Teza lui Hillar din „ Logos to Trinity” este astfel nedeterminata prin metoda sa si caracterul sau tendentios poate fi vazut in declaratiile pe care le face in favoarea sa din capitolul 4, pe care le citez pe lung:Biserica Romano-Catolica a sustinut ca doctrina lui Dumnezeu triunfata a fost cuprinsa sau cel putin implicata in textele scripturistice ale Vechiului si ale Noului Testament si ca asa a fost mesajul lor. escorte noi Doctrina a fost instituita ca dominanta in secolul al patrulea prin combinarea ei cu un mijloc de constrangere sub forma legii de stat si impiedicarea oricarui studiu savant independent al textelor sacre. A fost necesara Reforma si Reforma Radicala pentru a initia un proces dureros si deseori reprimat de sange reevaluare a textelor sacre si revenirea la sensul lor initial.The acceptance of the trinitarian doctrine is based on human psychological conditioning. filme porno cu escorte Even today, most Christians when facing the obvious scholarly arguments against the Trinity in the scriptures, bluntly refuse to consider them because they feel a threat to their pious belief in Jesus and the "Holy Spirit." This concept reflects the presumed highest level of piety by ascribing to the Christ-Messiah all possible perfections we can humanly imagine, thus equating him ontologically with the divinity. (132) These claims are quite dubious historically. escorte in oradea First, it is prima facie untenable (and nowhere supported in Hillar's present study) that the early Church implemented the doctrine of the Trinity in the fourth century as a political tool to establish its hegemony. To believe this, one must suppose that, just at the moment of its legalization under Constantine, the Christian Church, which had been persecuted for three centuries as atheistic for denying the gods of Rome, decided to flirt with plurality in the Godhead, despite the considerable risk of offending the first avowedly monotheistic emperor. Second, while state power may have consolidated the Trinitarian position after the Arian controversy had run its course, it is a highly unlikely that it was cause of it. escorte timisoata The Christian Church's alliance with the Roman state developed alongside the definition of the Trinity as dogma. Christianity was merely legalized in A.D. escorte botosani site:nimfomane.com 313 by the Edict of Milan, and did not become the official state religion until A. escorte nonstop galatiescorte constanta non stoprecomandari escorte brasovfemei escorteescorte universitateescorte mangalia site:nimfomane.comforum escorte constantaescorte kauflandescorte londraforum escorte suceavaescorte sex pitestiescorte bucuresti mihaelaescorte gaiestiescorte 1 maiescorte sex iasiescorte mariottescorte ieftineescorte sf gheorgheescorte elvetiaescorte tatgoviste D. 380 under Theodosius, only one year before the Council of Constantinople when the Arian controversy was finally put to rest. escorte drobeta Third, the Reformation and the "bloodily repressed process" of rereading the sacred texts have no real bearing on the origin of Trinitarian doctrine, which was scarcely questioned in that period. The ad hominem argumentation Hillar uses in the above quoted passage is particularly unfortunate. Since the "scholarly arguments" against Trinitarian doctrine are "obvious," he holds that "psychological conditioning" is the only explanation for its continued acceptance. anunturi escorte iasi As a matter of logic, this is no refutation. Regrettably it is necessary to repeat the nature of the fallacy here: a proposition might be held for any number of reasons, or even for no reason at all, and still be perfectly correct. Yet even assuming the "psychological conditioning" view, Hillar would still need to show that asserting God's triune personhood was an especially useful instrument in achieving political ends where its denial was not—that it played upon preexisting interests or prejudices or that it flattered the intellectual vanity of Christians at that time. escorte. sibiu Again this is very implausible historically: the early Christian church, like Judaism before it, was steadfastly monotheistic, a principle for which it was brutally persecuted over the first centuries of its existence. Indeed, during much of the fourth century, Arianism was the more popular view throughout the Empire and newly converted German tribes. Constantine himself seemed, if anything, to incline toward the Arian party throughout much of the controversy, even receiving baptism from a former Arian bishop on his deathbed. escorte uro bacau Hence, Hillar's view implies that Trinitarian "psychological conditioning" was so effective as to create out of whole cloth an ingrained, persistent belief that nevertheless runs contrary to reason, piety, fellow-feeling, and self-interest. Given Hillar's statements as to the actual grounds for the acceptance of Trinitarian doctrine, his historical approach to the subject becomes less intelligible. If Trinitarianism was in fact an opiate for the masses, what Heraclitus or Plato, or Philo or Justin Martyr for that matter could offer would have been of very little independent interest to a fourth century Christians and their leaders. escorte singure It is unclear, then, why the examination of, say, the Presocratics on the logos should be necessary in order to expose this cynical fraud perpetrated in the fourth century. Instead, we would expect a historical critique of Trinitarian doctrine to take the form of an account of the motivations and tactics of those peculiar bishops in the early church as to how this innovation was calculated to achieve political dominance. Yet we find relatively little discussion of what the doctrine of the Trinity actually consists of, the circumstances and debates that occasioned its development, and how those who actually formulated and defended the teachings of Nicaea and Constantinople characterize it. escorte public 24 This neglect of Church history leads to a number of mistakes, or even straw-man accounts of the doctrine. For example, the statement on pg. 109 that, as one substance and three persons, "the Trinity is 'quadernity'. escorte sec 1 " This facile distortion—something like saying if three quarters are lying on the table and all are currency, then there are four objects on the table—is addressed in most rudimentary presentations of Trinitarian doctrine. On pg. escorte braulaescorte medias sibiuescorte de lux.roescorte suceava forumescorte din oradeapublic bet escortetop escorte romaniaescorte mosilorescorte angliaescorte medgidiaescorte bicurestiescorte tpuescorte mature clujescorte suceava site:nimfomane.comescorte in sibiuescorte oescorte botosani publi24escorte maremuresescorte mamaiaform escorte constanta 257 he states that "Tertullian was first to use the term 'Trinity'" and cites the author's treatise Contra Praxeam written c. anunturi escorte bacau A.D. 218. escorte transexuale In fact the first use of "Trinity" in the context of Christian theology is by Theophilus of Antioch in To Autolycus (II, 15) dating to around A.D. 181, where the author invokes the term in his exposition of Genesis, that is, as a familiar term. Although Contra Praxeam is the first treatise on the Trinity as such, the word "Trinity" appears in an earlier work of Tertullian's, On Modesty (XXI, 16) probably written around A.D. 200, where it is mentioned in passing as well. By commonly accepted standards of evidence, this places the word "Trinity" as an established Christian concept relating to the Godhead in the early second century, to say nothing of the substance of the doctrine. By way of conclusion, a word should be added regarding Hillar's broader project of recovering a more authentic Christian theology through the excision of Trinitarianism. Hillar gives much credit to Michael Servetus in articulating the position he takes in From Logos to Trinity. A polymath living in the sixteenth century at the beginning of the Protestant Reformation, Servetus believed that the Trinity was the corrupt germ leading to the disturbances and upheavals that Latin Christendom was just beginning to experience and whose removal would lead not only to greater Christian unity, but would also set the stage for a possible rapprochement with Judaism and Islam. Given Hillar's broader project of theological harmony among the monotheisms of the world, it seems fitting to correct another common misunderstanding, namely, the view that there is nothing in the other monotheisms that answers to the role played by the Trinity. In Judaism, for example, the Torah, the wisdom of God, has been held to be eternal, or at least that its existence vastly predates Moses' reception of it on Mt. Sinai. In Islam, the Quran has been generally regarded as the eternal and uncreated word of God, with the minority position being that it is a temporal record of the revelations of the Prophet. Perhaps even more dramatically, the Sikh religion regards its holy script, the Guru Granth Sahib, as a person with the authority possessed as the successor of the living Gurus. All these facts suggest that parallels between the theologies of the great monotheisms and Christian Trinitarianism on the ontological status of God's Wisdom have yet to be acknowledged and explored.

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